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Stomach Flu with Bloody Diarrhea in Dogs

Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis (HGE) in Dogs

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis is identified by blood in the vomit and/or stool, often due to a food borne illness. Because it is a serious disorder than can be potentially fatal, immediate veterinary care is required.

Symptoms

Continuous vomiting and/or diarrhea are the most common symptoms. Other symptoms include:

Causes

Infectious gastroenteritis is caused by pathogens (infectious agents). Some of the pathogens most commonly associated with infectious gastroenteritis include:

E. coli, Salmonella and Corynebacterium are the most significant intestinal pathogens because they can be passed from animal to human or vice versa. Salmonella infections are also important due to association with reproductive disorders.

Sudden dietary changes and/or dietary toxins may cause irritation and/or affect the immune system. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, a chronic form of the illness, has been associated with allergens in dog foods. Gastroenteritis may be also observed due to irritation caused by stress, toxins, physical obstruction, ulcers, and abdominal disorders.

Gastroenteritis is not specific to any breed or gender, however, small breed dogs are more prone to infectious gastroenteritis.

Diagnosis

It may be difficult to identify the cause of gastroenteritis. Therefore, invasive diagnostic procedures may be required if routine diagnostic procedures are not successful.

A brief outline of diagnostic procedures:

Medical history:

  • Physical obstruction, tumors, ulcers, intestinal blockage, etc.
  • Information about the severity, progression and magnitude of the vomiting and diarrhea
  • The vaccination record may help in ruling out a parvoviral infection

Physical observations:

  • A skin test to determine the presence and extent of dehydration
  • An abdominal palpation to check abdominal pain and/or abdominal obstruction
  • An examination of mucus membranes to determine hemorrhagic losses
  • Cardiovascular function provides information on dehydration and/or blood loss
  • Visual observation of the vomit and/or stool to determine if there is blood present

Routine blood/biochemical tests:

  • Packed cell volume (hematocrit) data to confirm hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
  • Biochemical tests (i.e., liver, kidney, blood protein, and blood sugar)

Fecal study:

  • Cultural assays to identify any potential microbiological or parasitic organisms

Radiographs/endoscopy:

  • To locate any potentinal physical obstruction, tumor, ulcer, intestinal blockage, etc.

palpation

Examination through feeling

systemic

Something that is related to the whole body and not just one particular part or organ

mucus

A type of slime that is made up of certain salts, cells, or leukocytes

gastroenteritis

A medical condition in which the small intestine and stomach become inflamed

density

a) Mass per volume b) The number of animals in a given area

dehydration

A medical condition in which the body has lost fluid or water in excessive amounts

gastrointestinal

The digestive tract containing the stomach and intestine

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Vaginal Discharge in Dogs

Vaginal discharge refers to any substance coming from the animal’s vagina. Types of discharge can include mucus, blood, or pus. Since there are so many causes for this medical condition, consulting with a veterinarian is highly recommended.

Symptoms

Symptoms can include discharge from the animal’s vagina, spotting of blood, scooting the hindquarters, attracting males.

Causes

Reasons for why an animal would experience discharge include:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Foreign body
  • Vaginal trauma
  • Abnormal cells in the vaginal area
  • Fetal death
  • Retained placenta following a birthing
  • Vaginal infection

Some antibiotics can cause vaginal discharge. Estrogen medications given during some phases of the animal’s heat or estrous cycle, medications containing male hormones, and certain antibiotics can alter the vaginal cells, leading to excess discharge.

Diagnosis

Upon examination, the veterinarian may find blood, pus, urine or feces in abnormal quantities. The veterinarian will need to review the animal’s medical history and make a risk assessment. Radiograph or injection imaging may be used to examine the body for any more underlying medical conditions that would cause the vaginal discharge so that proper treatment can be prescribed.

pus

A product made of fluid, cell waste, and cells

placenta

The organ of mammals that comes while a female is pregnant; may also be referred to as afterbirth

mucus

A type of slime that is made up of certain salts, cells, or leukocytes

estrous cycle

The reproductive cycle of female animals

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Umbilical Hernia in Dogs

Umbilical Dog Hernia

An umbilical hernia is an opening in the muscle wall where the umbilicus (belly button) is located. The hernia allows the abdominal contents to pass through the opening.

Symptoms and Types

Umbilical hernias may be complicated or uncomplicated. A complicated hernia is one in which contents of the abdominal cavity, such as a loop of intestine, have passed through the opening and become entrapped.

An uncomplicated umbilical hernia is associated with a soft swelling in the umbilical area. This swelling may be variable in size and may come and go. Otherwise, the dog will appear health.

Symptoms seen with a complicated umbilical hernia may include:

  • Pain and warmth, especially at the site of the umbilical swelling
  • Vomiting
  • Lack of appetite
  • Depression

Causes

Most umbilical hernias in dogs are probably inherited although trauma can also be a cause. Some breeds of dogs, including Airedales, Pekingese, and basenji are predisposed to umbilical hernias.

Diagnosis

Umbilical hernias can usually be diagnosed by finding the swelling caused by the hernia on a physical examination. However, sometimes contrast radiographs (x-rays) or an abdominal ultrasound are needed to determine which abdominal contents, if any, are entrapped.

umbilicus

The spot in the wall of the abdomen in which the umbilical cord connects with the fetus; may also be referred to as the navel.

hernia

The condition of having a part of a body part protruding through the tissue that would normally cover it

abdominal cavity

The space in the abdomen that holds the major digestive organs in an animal. Normally referred to as the area between the diaphragm and the pelvis. Also referred to as the peritoneal cavity.

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Tylenol (Acetaminophen) Poisoning in Dogs

Acetaminophen Toxicity in Dogs

Acetaminophen is one of the most commonly used pain relievers, and it can be found in a variety of over-the-counter medications. Toxic levels can be reached when a pet is unintentionally over medicated with acetaminophen, or when a pet has gotten hold of medication and ingested it. Pet owners often do not realize their animals may break into medicine cabinets or chew through medicine bottles. It is important to be able to recognize the symptoms of toxicity, so that you can properly treat your pet if is has accidentally ingested medication.

Symptoms and Types

The effects of acetaminophen poisoning are quite serious, often causing non-repairable liver damage. Dogs will typically experience acetaminophen toxicity at over 75 mg per kg body weight. The most common symptoms that you may notice in pets suffering from acetaminophen toxicity include:

  • Brownish-gray colored gums
  • Labored breathing
  • Swollen face, neck or limbs
  • Hypothermia (reduced body temperature)
  • Vomiting
  • Jaundice (yellowish color to skin, whites of eyes), due to liver damage
  • Coma

Diagnosis

If you believe that your pet has ingested acetaminophen, it will typically be treated as an emergency situation. Seek the advice of a medical professional immediately, as treatment may be necessary. Your veterinarian will perform a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis to determine the level of toxicity, so that a potential treatment can be prescribed.

urinalysis

An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness

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Thyroid Hormone Deficiency in Dogs

Hypothyroidism in Dogs

The thyroid gland is an essential gland in the body, producing a number of hormones, including T3 (liothyronine) and T4 (levothyroxine), both of which are required for normal metabolism in the body.

Hypothyroidism is a clinical condition resulting from a lowered production and release of T4 and T3 hormones by the thyroid gland. It is common in medium to large-sized dogs, with some being more predisposed than others. These breeds include Doberman pinschers, Irish setters, golden retrievers, great Danes, old English sheepdogs, dachshunds, miniature schnauzers, boxers, poodles, and cocker spaniels. It is also more commonly diagnosed in middle-aged dogs between the ages of 4-10 years. Neutered male dogs and spayed females are found to be at higher risk than intact dogs.

Symptoms and Types

  • Lethargy
  • Generalized weakness
  • Inactivity
  • Mental dullness
  • Unexplained weight gain
  • Hair loss (alopecia)
  • Excessive hair shedding
  • Poor hair growth
  • Dry or lusterless haircoat
  • Excessive scaling
  • Recurring skin infections
  • Intolerance to cold
  • Tilting of head to one side (uncommon)
  • Seizures (uncommon)
  • Infertility (uncommon)

Causes

  • Unknown etiology (origin)
  • Congenital disease
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Cancer
  • After-effect of medical treatment, including surgery

Diagnosis

Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your dog, taking into account the background history of symptoms and possible incidents that might have precipitated this condition. You will need to provide your veterinarian with a thorough history of your dog’s health leading up to the onset of symptoms.

Finding the exact cause of hypothyroidism may require a thorough investigation. Routine laboratory testing will include a complete blood count, biochemistry profile, and urinalysis. Your doctor may be able to make an initial diagnosis based on the results of these tests, but endocrine testing is also an important panel for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The levels of T3 and T4 will be measured to determine if these are in the lower ranges. Radiographic studies may also be conducted to examine your dog internally for abnormalities that may be causing the dysfunction of the thyroid glands.

thyroid gland

A gland found in the neck of humans and animals that secretes glands responsible for metabolic rate, calcitonin, and others.

urinalysis

An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness

synthetic

Something that is artificially created

intact

Denotes an animal that is still able to reproduce or is free of cuts and scrapes

etiology

The study of the various causes of disease

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Spinal Cord Disorder Caused by Blocked Blood Vessel in Dogs

Fibrocartilaginous Embolic Myelopathy in Dogs

Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in dogs is a condition in which an area of the spinal cord is not able to function properly and eventually atrophies as a result of a blockage, or emboli, in the blood vessels of the spinal cord. The cause of this disorder is typically the result of an injury to the spine. The injury may be the result of jumping and landing in the wrong way, vigorous exercise, fighting, or any accident that leads to a spinal injury.

The highest number of cases tends to occur in giant and large breed dogs. Miniature schnauzers and Shetland sheepdogs are reported to be more prone to this injury. The reason has not been determined for why this is, but a suspected underlying condition of hyperlipoproteinemia that is commonly seen in these breeds is considered. Most cases occur between the ages of three and five years.

Symptoms and Types

The symptoms appear suddenly and usually follow what appears to be a mild injury or vigorous exercise.

  • Sudden, severe pain, dog may cry out at time of injury
  • Pain may subside after few minutes to hours
  • Paresis (signs of weakness or partial paralysis)
  • Paralysis
  • Lack of pain response (after initial pain response)
  • Dog may stabilize within 12-24 hours
  • Wobbly, uncoordinated or drunken gait (ataxia)

Causes

The exact cause is still unknown, but it is thought that a seemingly minor injury to the spine can force intervertebral disc material into the spinal cord, causing an embolism, or blockage of blood flow through the spinal cord. Other suspected predispositions to this disorder may be related to underlying hyperlipoproteinemia, and it is more often diagnosed in male dogs than in female.

Diagnosis

You will need to provide a thorough history of your dog’s health leading up to the onset of symptoms, the type of activities your dog engages in, and any injuries that you suspect to have recently occurred. Your veterinarian will rule out other causes, such as spinal tumor, intervertebral disc disease, or fracture before settling on a diagnosis. The above mentioned conditioned are very painful, therefore, a lack of pain can be indicative of an embolism in the spinal cord. Keep in mind that though there may be a lack of pain, the condition can be progressive and may affect long-term damage to the spine and neurological system. Immediate and supportive care is essential.

Routine laboratory test results, such as urinalysis and complete blood counts, are usually unremarkable. A sample of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) may be taken for analysis, and a sample of blood from the veins and arteries of the spinal cord may show microscopic fragments of fibrocartilage. Radiographic imaging studies may help in diagnosis. Apart from routine radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the best diagnostic technique for viewing the spinal cord. In the later stage of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy, swelling may be present at the site of the blockage.

myelopathy

A disease of the bone marrow or of the spine

radiography

A procedure of imaging internal body structures by exposing film

urinalysis

An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness

intervertebral disc

The padding found between the vertebrae that keeps them from rubbing together

gait

The term used to describe the movement of an animal

embolism

The blockage of a vessel by an object, like air or fat

euthanasia

Inducing death on an animal or putting them to sleep

ataxia

A medical condition in which an animal is unable to control the movements of their muscles; may result in collapse or stumbling.

hand feeding

A routine of feeding in which the animal is fed certain amounts of food at certain times of the day

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Seizures (Epileptic) in Dogs

Status Epilepticus in Dogs

Status epilepticus, or epilepsy, is a neurological disorder that causes dogs to have sudden, uncontrolled and recurring seizures. These physical attacks can come with or without a loss of consciousness.

What Causes Seizures in Dogs

Dog seizures can be caused by trauma, exposure to toxins, brain tumors, genetic abnormalities, issues with the dog’s blood or organs, or a number of other reasons. Other times, seizures may sometimes occur for unknown reasons – called idiopathic.

 

Types of Seizures in Dogs

There are three types of dog seizures, generally classified by researchers as focal (partial) seizures, generalized (grand mal) seizures, and focal seizures with secondary generalization.

Grand mal seizures in dogs affect both sides of the brain and the entire body. Grand mal seizures can look like involuntary jerking or twitching in all four of the animal’s limbs and include loss of consciousness.

A partial seizure in dogs affects only a small part of the brain and can manifest a couple different ways, but will typically progress to grand mal seizures throughout the dog’s lifetime. When a dog is having a partial seizure, only one limb, side of the body, or just the face will be affected.

What Do Dog Seizures Look Like?

Once the seizure(s) begin, the dog will fall on its side, become stiff, chomp its jaw, salivate profusely, urinate, defecate, vocalize, and/or paddle with all four limbs. These seizure activities generally last between 30 and 90 seconds. Behavior following the seizure is known as postictal behavior, and includes periods of confusion and disorientation, aimless wandering, compulsive behavior, blindness, pacing, increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased appetite (polyphagia). Recovery following the seizure may be immediate, or it can take up to 24 hours.

Generally, the younger the dog is, the more severe the epilepsy will be. As a rule, when onset is before age 2, the condition responds positively to medication. The more seizures a dog has, the more likely there is to be damage among the neurons in the brain, and the more likely the animal is to seize again.

 

Dog Seizure Symptoms

Signs of an impending seizure may include a period of warning, an altered mental state where the animal will experience what is called an aura or focal onset. During this time a dog may appear worried, dazed, stressed, or frightened. It may experience visual disturbances, hide, or seek help and attention from its owner. The dog may experience contractions in its limbs or in its muscles, and may have difficulty controlling urination and bowel movements.

Seizures most often occur while the dog is resting or asleep, often at night or in early morning. In addition, most dogs recover by the time you bring the dog to the veterinarian for examination.

 

Types of Epilepsy, Idiopathic or Genetic, in Dogs

Epilepsy is a coverall term used to describe brain disorders that are characterized by recurrent and/or recurring seizures. There are several different types of epilepsy that can affect dogs, so it helps to understand the different vocabulary associated with each.

  • Idiopathic epilepsy describes a form of epilepsy that does not have an identifiable underlying cause. However, idiopathic epilepsy is often characterized by structural brain lesions and is found more often in male dogs. If left untreated, the seizures may become more severe and frequent.
  • Symptomatic epilepsy is used to describe primary epilepsy resulting in structural lesions or damage to the brain’s structure.
  • Probably symptomatic epilepsy is used to describe suspected symptomatic epilepsy, where a dog has recurrent seizures, but where no lesions or brain damage is apparent.
  • Cluster seizure describes any situation where an animal has more than one seizure in consecutive 24-hour periods. Dogs with established epilepsy can have cluster seizures at regular intervals of one to four weeks. This is particularly evident in large-breed dogs.
  • Status epilepticus involves constant seizures, or activity involving brief periods where there is inactivity, but not complete relief from seizure activity.

 

Causes of Idiopathic Epilepsy in Dogs

Many different factors, including the pattern of seizures, can influence the development of future seizures. For example, how old a dog is when it first develops a seizure may determine the likelihood that it will develop future seizures, recurrent seizures, and the frequency and outcome of those seizures.

Idiopathic epilepsy is genetic in many dog breeds and is also familial; meaning that it runs in certain families or lines of animals. These breeds of dog should be tested for epilepsy and if diagnosed, should not be used for breeding. Breeds most prone to idiopathic epilepsy include the:

Multiple genes and recessive modes of inheritance are suggested in the Bernese Mountain Dog and Labrador Retriever, while non-gender hormone recessive traits has been proposed in the Vizsla and Irish Wolfhound. There are also recessive traits in the English Springer Spaniel, which can lead to epilepsy, but it does not appear to affect all members of the family. Seizures are mainly focal (involving localized areas of the brain) in the Finnish Spitz.

The characteristics associated with genetic epilepsy usually manifest from10-months to 3-years of age, but has been reported as early as six months and as late as five years.

 

Diagnosis

The two most important factors in the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy are: the age at onset and the seizure pattern (type and frequency).

If your dog has more than two seizures within the first week of onset, your veterinarian will probably consider a diagnosis other than idiopathic epilepsy. If the seizures occur when the dog is younger than six months or older than five years, it may be metabolic or intracranial (within the skull) in origin; this will rule out hypoglycemia in older dogs. Focal seizures or the presence of neurologic deficits, meanwhile, indicate structural intracranial disease.

Physical symptoms may include tachycardia, muscle contractions, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure, weak pulse, fainting, swelling in the brain, and obvious seizures. Some dogs will exhibit mental behaviors that are out of the ordinary, including symptoms of obsessive and compulsive behaviors. Some will also demonstrate shaking and twitching. Others may tremble. Still others may die.

Laboratory and biochemical tests may reveal the following:

  • Low blood sugar
  • Kidney and liver failure
  • A fatty liver
  • An infectious disease in the blood
  • Viral or fungal diseases
  • Systemic diseases

 

Treatment

Most of the treatment for dogs with epilepsy is outpatient. It is recommended that the dog does not attempt to swim in order to prevent accidental drowning while it undergoes treatment. Be aware that most dogs on long-term antiepileptic tend to gain weight, so monitor your dog’s weight closely and consult your veterinarian for a diet plan if necessary.

In some cases certain medical procedures, including surgery to remove tumors that may contribute to seizures, may be needed. Drugs may help reduce the frequency of seizures for some animals. Some corticosteroid medications, anti-epileptic, and anti-convulsant medications may also help to reduce the frequency of seizures. The type of medications given will depend on the type of epilepsy the animal has, as well as other underlying health conditions the animal has.

For example, steroids are not recommended for animals with infectious diseases, as they can have an adverse effect.

 

Living and Management

Early treatment and proper care are vital to a dog’s general health and wellness. Younger dogs are more at risk for severe forms of certain types of epilepsy, including primary and idiopathic epilepsy. Make sure you take your dog to the veterinarian early if you suspect it may be at risk for this, or any other type of disease. Together, you and your veterinarian can determine the best possible course of action for your dog.

If your dog is living with epilepsy, it’s important that you stay on top of treatment. It’s essential to monitor therapeutic levels of drugs in the blood. Dogs treated with phenobarbital, for instance, must have their blood and serum chemistry profile monitored after initiating therapy during the second and fourth week. These drug levels will then be evaluated every 6- to 12-months, changing the serum levels accordingly.

Carefully monitor older dogs with kidney insufficiency that are on potassium bromide treatment; your veterinarian may recommend a diet change for these dogs.

 

Prevention

Because idiopathic epilepsy is due to genetic abnormalities, there is little you can do to prevent it. Aside from familiarizing yourself with the breeds most commonly affected by epilepsy and having your pet tested, there are a couple precautions you can take. Avoid salty treats for dogs treated with potassium bromide, as it may lead to seizures. If your dog is on medication to control its epilepsy, don’t abruptly discontinue it, as this may aggravate and/or initiate seizures.

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Salmonella Infection in Dogs

Salmonellosis in Dogs

Salmonellosis is an infection found in dogs caused by the Salmonella bacterium. It often leads to disorders, including gastroenteritis, spontaneous abortions, and septicemia. This bacterial disease is also zoonotic, meaning it can be transmitted to humans.

Salmonellosis affects both dogs cats. If you would like to learn how this disease affects cats, please visit this page in the PetMD health library.

Symptoms and Types

The severity of the disease will often determine the signs and symptoms that are overtly present in the dog. Symptoms commonly seen in dogs with salmonellosis include:

Chronic forms of salmonellosis may exhibit some of these same symptoms; however, they will be more severe. These include symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of blood
  • Non-intestinal infections
  • Diarrhea that comes and goes with no logical explanation, which may last up to three or four weeks, or longer

Causes

There are more than 2,000 different types of Salmonella, a Gram-negative enterobacteria. Typically, a host animal carrying the disease will have two or more different microorganisms or types of Salmonellae bacteria that cause this disease.

Risk factors include the dog’s age, with younger and older animals most at risk due to their underdeveloped and/or compromised immune systems. Similarly, dogs with weak immune systems or immature gastrointestinal tracts are at risk.

Dogs receiving antibiotic therapy are also at risk because the healthy bacteria that line the digestive tract (or florae), may become imbalanced, increasing the risk of salmonellosis.

Diagnosis

To confirm a diagnosis of salmonellosis, your veterinarian will examine your dog for different physical and pathological findings.

Unfortunately, a dog infected with the bacteria will typically not show any clinical symptoms. However, some dogs do have gastroenteritis, a disease affecting the gastrointestinal system that presents with an inability to eat, general poor health and fatigue, depression, and a chronic fever that may stay as high as 104 degrees Fahrenheit.

Other diagnostic features include:

Your veterinarian may want to also rule out other conditions that can result in similar symptoms, including parasites, dietary-induced stress (including allergy or food intolerances), drug or toxin-induced stresses, and diseases like viral gastroenteritis or bacterial gastroenteritis caused by E. Coli or other common bacteria.

Diagnostic procedures typically involve collecting urine and fecal samples for laboratory analysis. Your veterinarian may also find it helpful to conduct blood cultures.

sepsis

A medical condition; the contamination of a living thing by a harmful type of bacteria

platelet

A cell that aids in clotting

septicemia

A condition of the blood in which micro-organisms or harmful toxins are present in the system

systemic

Something that is related to the whole body and not just one particular part or organ

zoonosis

A type of disease that can be transferred between people and animals

lymph nodes

Small structures that filter out the lymph and store lymphocytes

steroid

The term for a type of medication that impacts immunity, metabolism, sexual characteristics, and other such elements of a living thing

gastroenteritis

A medical condition in which the small intestine and stomach become inflamed

anemia

A condition of the blood in which normal red blood cell counts or hemoglobin are lacking.

albumin

A type of protein that can be dissolved in water; found in milk, egg white, certain muscle, blood, and some urine.

bacterium

The singular form of the word bacteria; a tiny, microscopic organism only made up of one cell.

dehydration

A medical condition in which the body has lost fluid or water in excessive amounts

acute

Term used to imply that a situation or condition is more severe than usual; also used to refer to a disease having run a short course or come on suddenly.

digestive tract

The whole system involved in digestion from mouth to anus

gastrointestinal

The digestive tract containing the stomach and intestine

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Nose Bleed in Dogs

Epistaxis in Dogs

A bleeding nose can come from several sources. One may be the result of a condition called coagulopathy — a condition where the blood is not coagulating as it should. There are several other possible causes for nose bleeds, such as a wound or injury that is not apparent, as from a snake bite,  or it may be from a disease, like cancer in an organ, leukemia, or a number of other diseases. Regardless of the cause, this is a condition that needs to be checked by your veterinarian promptly.

The condition or disease described in this medical article can affect both dogs and cats. If you would like to learn more about how this disease affects cats, please visit this page in the PetMD health library.

Diagnosis

It will probably take time and several tests to determine what is causing the bleeding. The veterinarian will first need to know if your dog has a reduced number of red blood cells, indicating anemia, and if so, how critical it is. Other tests that will be ordered by your veterinarian are blood analyses to determine whether the blood platelets are normal, a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, a urinalysis, and tests to determine whether there is bone-marrow disease. To determine whether the bleeding is caused by a coagulation problem, a coagulation profile will also be conducted.

Your veterinarian will also need to determine whether there is evidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A thyroid test will be performed, and some x-rays may be required, as well as a computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan.

platelet

A cell that aids in clotting

radiation therapy

A treatment of certain neoplasms that is administered using an x ray

urinalysis

An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness

leukemia

An increase in the number of bad white blood cells

hemophilia

A genetic condition in which blood does not properly coagulate

blood pressure

The amount of pressure applied by the blood on the arteries.

epinephrine

A type of hormone, also called adrenaline

anemia

A condition of the blood in which normal red blood cell counts or hemoglobin are lacking.

hemorrhage

Extreme loss of blood

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Mass Protrusion from the Vaginal Area in Dogs

Vaginal Hyperplasia and Prolapse in Dogs

Vaginal hyperplasia and prolapse refers to a mass which protrudes from the vaginal area. The condition is similar in nature to fluid-filled tissue (edema). If serious, it can prevent normal urination. Vaginal hyperplasia affects dogs of all ages, although it is found more commonly in younger animals. The outcome is positive for most animals, but the chance of the condition recurring is high.

Symptoms and Types

Type 1 hyperplasia occurs when there is a slight protrusion, even though it does not exit the vulva itself. Type 2 hyperplasia, on the other hand, is when the vaginal tissue actually protrudes through the vulvar opening. While Type 3 hyperplasia refers to the donut-shaped mass, which can be seen externally.

There are several signs that may be noticed with this medical disorder, including the licking of the vaginal area, unwillingness to copulate, and painful urination (dysuria).

Causes

This disorder can affect almost any breed. But these breeds are more likely to suffer from the condition: Labradors, Chesapeake Bay Retrievers, German Shepherds, Springer Spaniels, Walker Hounds, Airedale Terriers, and American Pit Bull Terriers.

Diagnosis

Upon physical examination, a round mass may be noticed protruding the animal’s vulvar area. A vaginal examination will be performed to determine the severity and type of the condition. To the touch, the animal’s tissue may feel dry.

vulva

The genitalia of a female; found on the outside

urethra

A tube found between the bladder and the outside of the body; used to assist in urination.

edema

The collection of fluid in the tissue

dysuria

Having a hard time urinating; pain while urinating

prolapse

The falling forward of something, usually visceral